Fracking and Biodiversity: Unaddressed Issues in the New York Debate
by Erik Kiviat and Karen Schneller-McDonald, Fall, 2011 from News from Hudsonia–A Journal of Natural History and Environmental Issues
Risks to biodiversity from hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the Marcellus and Utica shales
ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Issue: The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology by Erik Kiviat . High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHHF) for mining natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica shales is widespread in Pennsylvania and potentially throughout approximately 280,000 km2 of the Appalachian Basin. Physical and chemical impacts of HVHHF include pollution by toxic synthetic chemicals, salt, and radionuclides, landscape fragmentation by wellpads, pipelines, and roads, alteration of stream and wetland hydrology, and increased truck traffic. Despite concerns about human health, there has been little study of the impacts on habitats and biota.
Hydraulic Fracturing Threats to Species with Restricted Geographic Ranges in the Eastern United States
“High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a new technology that poses many threats to biodiversity.” By Jennifer L. Gillen, Erik Kiviat, ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES, Submitted May 18, 2012; revised August 6, 2012; accepted August 27, 2012..
Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity
by Benjamin K. Sovacool for Elsevier, March 2009